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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)


What is the first thing I should do when I notice water damage in my home?

When you see water damage, the first thing to do is ensure that everyone in the house is safe. Water damage can pose several risks, including electrical hazards, contaminated drinking water, and structurally unsound building materials.

Take these steps after ensuring everyone’s security:

  1. Stop the source of the water: Try to stop the leakage or overflow if you can. Shutting off the water source for a broken pipe or appliance may be necessary. The next step is determining if the water’s source can be controlled.
  2. Remove valuables. Remove furniture, electronics, and other valuable items if it is safe. This will prevent further damage.
  3. Document damage: Take photos or videos before you start any cleaning efforts. This is for insurance purposes. Documentation can be used to support your insurance claim, ensuring you receive the coverage you deserve.
  4. Contact an expert: You may need to contact a water damage restoration professional depending on the severity of your situation. They can determine the type and severity of damage and develop a restoration plan. It is particularly important to do this if the water damage falls into higher categories or classes, as these require special handling to avoid further damage and health risks.
  5. Inform your insurance company. Contact the insurance company and inform them about the situation. The earlier you contact them, the better.

Don’t forget that water damage can cause structural and mold damage if not dealt with promptly.

How can I tell what class of water damage I'm dealing with?

Water damage classes are determined by the damage caused and the rate at which it evaporates. This simple guide will help you determine the type of water damage you are dealing with.

  1. Class I Water Damage: The least severe water damage. Suppose only a small part of the area is affected by water, with minimal moisture absorption within the building materials and little or no wet carpet. In that case, you are likely dealing with class 1 water damage. A small spill or a leaky water pipe could be an example.
  2. Water Damage Class 2: A class 2 water damage is when a room or an area has been affected. Wet carpeting, cushions, or water may raise the wall by less than 24 inches. Moisture can also be found in the structural materials. If, for example, the washing machine overflows, soaks up the laundry room, and seeps through the walls, this would likely be Class 2 Water Damage.
  3. Class 2 Water Damage: Water dripping from above can cause Class 2 water damage. This includes ceilings, walls, and insulation. Carpet and subfloors may also be affected. It usually results from a roof leak or a pipe burst on an upper level.
  4. Class 4 water damage: This category includes water that has seeped or saturated materials with low evaporation, such as hardwood, stone, or concrete. This class of water damage often requires special drying techniques.
  5. Class 5 water damage: Severe damage is usually caused by natural disasters or structural damages where a large amount of potentially contaminated water has invaded a property.

Water damage assessment is a complex process that’s best left to the professionals. They can accurately assess the damage and create a remediation plan.

Can I handle Class 1 water damage myself, or should I always call a professional?

Water damage in class 1 is the least serious type. In many cases, if you are comfortable with it, you can handle it on your own. Before making a decision, you should consider several factors.

You can use household items such as fans, dehumidifiers, and a wet/dry vac to deal with water damage caused by a clean source.

You can take the following steps:

  1. Remove Extra Water: Begin by blotting or mopping the excess water with towels to prevent it from absorbing further.
  2. Dry out the Area: Use a fan and a humidifier to dry the affected area. Aim fans at the affected areas to encourage evaporation.
  3. Monitor Area: Monitor it for a couple of days after drying to check for any signs of mold or moisture. If you don’t see the area completely dry or notice a musty odor, you could have mold or residual moisture. It is best to contact a professional.

If the water damage is more extensive, involves hard-to-reach areas, contains contaminated water (like from a broken sewer line), or you suspect the water may have been standing for some time, it’s better to contact a professional. There could be hidden damage and microbial growth in these situations. Professional assessment and remediation are required.

Even if it’s only Class 1 damage, you should still call a professional if this is something you are not confident doing or if there has been damage to valuable items or important things. It is important to address the damage properly to avoid further issues, such as mold growth or structural instabilities.

Are there health risks associated with different categories of water damage?

Different categories of water damage have different health risks. The risks increase as you progress from Category 1 (Clean Water) to Category 3(Black Water).

  1. Clean Water Category 1: The water comes from a clean source and poses no significant risk to the skin, ingestion, or inhalation. If not removed immediately, Category 1 water may degrade to Category 2 or Category 3 water through contact with contaminants or stagnation.
  2. Grey Water: The water in this category contains significant contamination and can cause discomfort or illness if contacted or consumed. This water may contain microorganisms at unsafe levels or nutrients for bacteria. Some examples include toilet bowls containing urine only (no feces), failures of sump pumps, and discharges from washing machines or dishwashers. This water will degrade if not treated immediately.
  3. Black Water: The water in this category is highly contaminated. It could cause serious illness or even death if it were consumed. Contacting the water may also cause discomfort or some degree of illness. Water in Category 3 can be pathogenic, toxic, or contain other harmful agents. Examples of Category 3 water include sewage and toilet backflows beyond the trap.

Water damage should be treated seriously regardless of its category to protect property and health. If moisture is not removed properly and quickly, even when water damage falls under Category 1, it can lead to mold growth. This can cause significant health issues, such as allergies and respiratory problems.

If you are unsure about the safety of the water damage situation in any case, it is best to consult a professional. They can assess the damage and provide the necessary remediation. Professionals have the right training, protective equipment, and tools to deal with water damage safely and effectively.

What steps do professionals take to clean up the different categories of water damage?

Water damage can be classified into different categories. Here is an overview of what professionals do:

  1. Inspection & Assessment: Always inspect and assess your property to determine the type and extent of the water damage. Determining the type of water and water damage is important to develop a strategy.
  2. Extraction/Removal of Water: After the assessment, the next step will be removing excess water. This may involve using powerful vacuum units and pumps to remove hundreds, or even thousands, of gallons from the property.
  3. Dehumidification and Drying: Once the majority of water is removed, professionals use specialized equipment for water that’s more difficult to reach. Dehumidifiers, air movers, and other commercial-grade equipment can remove moisture from building materials or other difficult-to-reach areas.
  4. Cleaning & Sanitizing: Different cleaning and sanitation procedures are performed depending on the type of water damage. Cleaning personal items, deodorizing, and antimicrobial treatment to prevent mold can be included.
  5. Restoration The last step is to restore the building or home to its original condition before the water damage. Restoration can range from a minor task, like replacing a few panels of drywall, to a major one, such as rebuilding an entire house or business room.

Category 1 water damage process is relatively straightforward, and the main focus is on drying the affected area.

In the case of Category 2 water damage, the focus is on cleaning and disinfecting, as the water may be contaminated.

The most severe water damage is Category 3. This requires the most intensive cleaning and disinfection process. Materials exposed to Category 3 water may need to be thrown out and replaced in many cases.

Water damage is complicated, particularly if the damage or contamination is large. Consult professionals to ensure the remediation process is carried out safely and thoroughly.

Does my home insurance cover all classes and categories of water damage?

Water damage is covered by homeowners insurance policies depending on the cause of the damage and not the category or class. It would be best to familiarize yourself with your policy details or talk to your agent directly to discover what’s covered.

Here is a general overview.

  1. Sudden Discharge or Accidental Overflow: Your homeowner’s insurance may cover damages if a sudden or accidental discharge, such as a burst water pipe or an accidental overflow from a sink or bathtub, causes the damage. It is common for homeowners insurance to cover water damage, even if it is extensive. This is as long as the cause was not negligence or lack of maintenance.
  2. Water or Sewer Backup: This type of water damage can often be covered separately, even if it is not part of the standard homeowner’s insurance policy. This coverage kicks in if you have a sewer backup that causes water damage or if your sump pump fails and water floods your basement.
  3. Flooding Standard homeowners insurance typically does not cover damage caused by floods. You will need separate flood insurance to cover damage caused by natural flooding (e.g., overflowing rivers or heavy rains). The National Flood Insurance Program in the United States usually provides flood insurance.
  4. Neglect and Maintenance Issues: If the water damage is caused by neglect or a lack of maintenance, for example, if you fail to repair a small leak that leads to a major water loss, your insurance policy will not cover the damage.

It’s important to notify your insurance company immediately after discovering any water damage, regardless of its cause. Save all receipts for cleaning and repairs and photos and videos of the damage. They will be essential when you make your insurance claim.

Please be aware that this is only a guide, and actual coverage may vary depending on your policy, local laws, and the water damage circumstances. Consult your policy or your insurance company to get accurate information.

How long does it usually take to remediate water damage?

Water damage remediation can take a long time, depending on many factors. These include the damage’s severity and extent, the area’s size, the type of materials used, and remediation methods. Here’s a rough estimate:

  1. Extraction of Water and Drying: Removing standing water and drying the affected area may take a few days and a week. The amount of water and the method used to remove it will determine how long the process takes. The type of material affected is also important. Porous materials, such as wood and drywall, can take longer to cure than non-porous ones.
  2. Cleaning & Decontamination: Additional time is required for cleaning and decontamination if the water damage falls into Category 2 or 3 (blackwater). The remediation process can be extended by several days if the water damage is Category 2 (greywater) or Category 3 (blackwater).
  3. Restoration: During the restoration phase, you will restore the area to its original condition. It could be as simple as repainting the walls, replacing the flooring, or replacing sections of drywall. Depending on the extent, this can take a few weeks or several days.

A simple water damage case (a small area affected by clean, fresh water) could take as little as a week. It could take weeks or months for more serious cases, especially those that need significant restoration.

Remember that thoroughness is more important than speed. It cannot be very pleasant to have remediation in your home. However, rushing through the process could lead to inadequate drying or decontamination. This can cause structural problems or mold growth.

How can I prevent future water damage in my home?

Regular maintenance and attention to the systems in your house are key factors in preventing water damage. You can prevent water damage by following these steps:

  1. Inspect Your Roof Regularly: The roof is your home’s first line of defense against water. Check it regularly for signs such as damaged or missing shingles and fix any problems immediately.
  2. Keep Downspouts and Gutters Clear: Clogged gutters can overflow water and seep into your foundation and lower levels of your house. At least twice a year, clean your gutters and make sure your downspouts direct water away from your house.
  3. Maintain your Plumbing System: Check for leaks in your pipes, faucets and toilets. Over time, even a small leak could become a major problem. You should have any problems repaired immediately if you notice them.
  4. Monitor your Water Bill: An unexpected increase in your bill could indicate that you have a leak. It’s worth looking into if you notice a change not attributed to normal use.
  5. Installing a Sump-Pump: A sump-pump can keep your basement dry by pumping the water away from the home.
  6. Do not pour grease down the drain: Grease clogs your pipes and can cause sewage backups. Allow it to cool before disposing of it.
  7. Install water detection devices: Water detectors are small electronic devices that sound an alarm if their sensor comes into contact with moisture. Its primary benefit is to detect low moisture levels and slow leaks, which are often overlooked. Install it near sump pumps and water heaters. Also, install it near washing machines, dishwashers and toilets.
  8. Insulate pipes in cold weather: During the winter, pipes can freeze, burst, and cause significant water damage. Insulate pipes to prevent damage from freezing.
  9. Seal Windows & Doors: Ensure windows and doors are sealed properly to prevent water leakage during rainstorms.

While you may not be able to prevent all possible sources of water damage from occurring, regular maintenance can reduce your risk.

If water damage leads to mold growth, what additional steps will need to be taken?

Mold can grow from water damage. Additional steps must be taken to remove the mold completely and prevent it from growing again. Mold is hazardous to your health and can damage building materials. It’s important to deal with it quickly and correctly. Mold remediation typically involves the following steps:

  1. Mold Assessment: Assessing the extent of mold infestation is the first step. It may involve a visual inspection, moisture measurement, or in some cases, sampling to determine the type of mold. You should identify hidden mold, such as that found inside walls or beneath the flooring.
  2. Containment, The affected area must be contained to prevent mold spores from spreading during the remediation. This could involve the use of plastic sheets and negative pressure.
  3. Mold Removing: If possible, all moldy materials must be cleaned. Otherwise, they should be removed and thrown away if cleaning is impossible. Metal, glass, and hard plastics are non-porous. They can be cleaned. Materials with mold growth (such as carpeting or drywall) might need to be thrown away.
  4. Cleaning & Disinfection: You must thoroughly clean and disinfect the area. It may be necessary to use HEPA vacuums to remove dust, spores, and mold.
  5. Drying: The area must be dried thoroughly to prevent mold from returning. Mold needs moisture to thrive, so removing moisture is the best way to prevent future growth.
  6. Restoration and Repair: Once the mold is fully remedied, all damaged materials (such as drywall or carpeting) must be repaired or replaced. This could be a straightforward or extensive process depending on the extent and type of damage.
  7. Prevention: Finally, you should take steps to prevent mold growth in the future. It is important to address the source of water damage and improve ventilation.

If mold growth is excessive or toxic mold is present in the environment, you should hire professionals to perform remediation. They have the necessary training and equipment for handling mold safely and effectively.

What is a specialty drying situation and when would it be necessary?

Specialty drying situations are those in which standard drying methods do not work or are not applicable. More advanced equipment and techniques will be required to dry the area properly.

These situations can occur when dealing with certain materials, structures, or water saturation levels that are too high to be dried by conventional methods. Here are a few examples:

  1. Drying Hardwood Floors: It can be difficult to dry hardwood floors because water can seep under the boards. This makes it hard to reach with standard drying equipment. Floor mat drying systems are specially designed to remove moisture from under hardwood flooring. This helps to save the floor and to prevent cupping or warping.
  2. Cavities in Walls: It can be difficult to dry drywall if water has penetrated the wall. Specialty drying systems like injection can be helpful. These systems use hoses to blow warm and dry air into wall cavities, helping to evaporate the moisture without damaging walls.
  3. Basements and Crawl Spaces: These areas are difficult to dry due to poor ventilation and limited access. These areas may require specialized equipment such as low-profile air movers or dehumidifiers with high capacity.
  4. Books and Documents: Water-damaged books, documents, or photographs need specialized drying methods to restore the damage without further damaging them. Vacuum freeze-drying thermal or dehumidification are some techniques that can be used.
  5. Masonry and Concrete: These can be difficult to dry and hold much water. Drying out these materials may require specialized equipment like heat injectors and high-efficiency humidifiers.

Specialty drying is often required when conventional drying methods cannot reach water-damaged areas or when replacing damaged items would be costly and inconvenient. Consult a professional water remediation company to evaluate the situation and determine the best drying strategy.

Can Category 1 water damage progress to a more severe category over time?

If not treated promptly, water damage of Category 1, which comes from a sanitary and clean source, could progress over time to a much more serious category. Various substances and materials can contaminate water or create an environment conducive to bacterial and fungus growth.

Here’s a breakdown:

  1. The progression to Category 2 (Grey Water). Category 1 water can become Category 2 if left on surfaces or standing for an extended period, usually 48 hours. The water will become grey when it absorbs contaminants such as wood, carpeting, or insulation.
  2. The water can progress to Category 3 (Black Water). Water that continues to stand may further degrade and reach Category 3. It takes longer, and the water usually comes into contact with unsanitary materials like sewage. This can happen if water initially categorized as Category 1 (like rainfall) is in contact with contaminants on the ground.

Because of this progression, it is important to deal with water damage as soon as possible. It can prevent further damage to the property and maintain a healthy and safe environment by preventing harmful microorganisms from growing and spreading. It’s best to hire a water damage restoration company if you have significant water damage. This is especially true if the water has been sitting for some time.

What safety precautions should I take when dealing with water damage in my home?

When dealing with water damage, safety should be the top priority. You may need to take a few precautions depending on the amount of damage and type of water.

  1. Assessing the Situation: Before entering an area that has been water-damaged, assess the current situation. The structural integrity of your house may have been compromised if the water damage was severe. Watch for damage to the walls and ceiling. Avoid entering the house if it appears to be unstable.
  2. Turn off the Power: In the event of significant flooding, turn the power off at the main breakers if this is safe. You should never walk through water that is still standing when the electricity is on. Water conducts electricity and could electrocute you.
  3. Wear Protective Equipment: When entering a water-damaged zone, wear protective gear. Wearing eye protection, waterproof boots, gloves, and a respirator or mask is essential. It is particularly important to wear eye protection if there are signs of water contamination (Category 2, 3).
  4. Avoid Contaminated water: Do not contact the water if water damage is in Category 2 (grey or black water). This water may contain harmful microorganisms which can cause illness.
  5. Ventilate Area: Open windows and doors if it is safe. This can speed up the drying and reduce the chance of mold growth. Avoid doing this, however, if the weather outside could cause more water to enter your home.
  6. Be Aware of Hazards: The damage caused by water can lead to a variety of hazards, including slippery floors, sharp items hidden beneath the water, and hazardous materials such as chemicals that have been spilled or displaced.
  7. Prevent Electrocution: Be careful around electrical outlets and appliances exposed to water. Do not use electrical appliances that were in contact with water before they have been checked by a professional and determined safe.
  8. Cleanse and disinfect: After removing the water, clean and disinfect the affected surfaces. This will prevent the growth of bacteria and mold.

It is often safer to hire a water damage restoration company. The water damage remediation company has the experience and equipment to deal with the problem safely and effectively. This reduces the risk for you and your family.

Will I need to temporarily move out of my home during the remediation process?

The extent of damage and type of work will determine whether you need to leave your home temporarily during the water damage restoration process. Consider these factors:

  1. Damage Extent: If the damage is limited to one area, such as the kitchen or bathroom, it may be possible to continue living in your home during the repair work if the essential facilities are safe and functional. If the damage is extensive or affects important areas of your home, you may need to relocate temporarily.
  2. Contamination: In the case of water damage that falls under Category 2 (grey or black water), the water can contain microorganisms that can be harmful and pose a health risk. It’s safer to leave your home while the remediation is being done in such cases.
  3. Structural safety: Your home may be unsafe if the water damage damages the structural integrity. Always listen to the professionals’ advice when it comes to structural stability.
  4. Process of Remediation: Some aspects of the remediation, such as using industrial fans and humidifiers to dry, can cause noise and disruption. You may also notice dust or odors from cleaning and repair work. You may want to consider staying elsewhere, especially if your family includes young children, seniors, or those with health issues.
  5. Duration for Repairs: If the repair process takes considerable time, it may be better to relocate temporarily.

You should be able to get advice from your water damage professional based on the specifics of your situation. Remember to notify your homeowner’s insurance company if you need to relocate. Your policy may cover temporary living costs.

What can I expect from the restoration process after water damage remediation?

After water damage remediation, the restoration process involves restoring your home to its original condition. It involves replacing or repairing damaged materials or structures and dealing with related issues such as mold or mildew. What you can expect in general:

  1. Assessment: A comprehensive damage assessment is the restoration’s first step. Professionals may examine the affected structure and belongings to determine what is repairable and must be replaced.
  2. Estimate: Based on the evaluation, you’ll get an estimate of what work is needed, along with costs and timelines. You can then decide what you want to repair or replace.
  3. Repairs: Restoration includes a variety of repairs, such as structural repairs, like repairing damaged walls, floors, or ceilings, and cosmetic repairs, like repainting.
  4. Replace: When certain items or structures cannot be repaired and are beyond repair, they must be changed. It could be drywall, cabinetry, or flooring. This could include replacing damaged personal items.
  5. Cleaning: All areas affected by water damage will receive a thorough cleaning. It may involve professional carpet cleansing, deodorizing, and mold/mildew extraction.
  6. Mold Removal: If mold has grown due to water damage, it will be dealt with during the restoration. Mold remediation includes removing the mold, addressing the moisture source, and taking steps to prevent mold growth.
  7. Final walkthrough: After completing all work, the restoration firm should conduct a final inspection to ensure that all repairs and replacements are completed to your satisfaction. You can raise any concerns or ask questions about the work performed.

Restoration is more than just fixing the damage. It’s about restoring your home to a healthy, safe, and comfortable condition. This can be a major undertaking depending on the extent and severity of the damage. A professional restoration company, however, will ensure that the process runs as smoothly as possible.

Can personal belongings and furniture be salvaged after water damage, or will I need to replace everything?

The ability to salvage personal belongings or furniture after water damage depends on several factors. These include the extent of damage, how long the items were exposed to water, what type of water was used (clean, gray, or black), and the materials of which the items are made.

  1. Types of Water: Items exposed to clean (Category 1) are most likely to survive, provided they are cleaned and dried quickly. Grey water (Category 3) can be salvaged, but it may need to be cleaned and disinfected more thoroughly. The items exposed to blackwater (Category 3) which contains significant contaminants, are least likely to survive. This is especially true for porous or absorbent items.
  2. Material Type: Porous material, such as upholstery, carpets, and books, can absorb water, making it difficult to clean and dry. Mold can also grow on them. Metal, plastic, or glass are non-porous and do not absorb water. They can be cleaned and disinfected much easier.
  3. Extent and Time of Exposure: As items are exposed to water for longer, they will sustain more damage and be less salvageable. If an item is completely submerged or the water damage occurred due to a major event, such as a flood, it will be beyond repair.
  4. Specialty Restoration Service: Certain items may need professional restoration services to be salvaged. Electronic devices, for example, may require a specialist’s help to remove moisture safely and prevent corrosion. Special document restoration services may be required for important documents or photos.
  5. Safety: Consider safety before salvaging or disposing of items. It’s usually safer to throw away items at risk of contamination.

It’s crucial to act fast when you have water-damaged items. The faster items are cleaned and dried, the greater the chance of salvaging them. Consult a professional in water damage restoration for advice on your particular situation.